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Racial Profiling

“[…] racial profiling is discriminatory and unlawful. Such profiling is defined as the “use by police, with no objective and reasonable justification, of grounds such as race, colour, language, religion, nationality or national or ethnic origin in control, surveillance or investigation activities”, as outlined in General Policy Recommendation N°11 of the Council of Europe Commission against Racism and Intolerance.”

Overall, respondents’ level of trust in the police is 6.3 on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means ‘no trust at all’ and 10 indicates ‘complete trust’. Respondents in Finland trust the police the most (8.2). By contrast, respondents in Austria have the lowest level of trust in the police (3.6).


Data from the 2016 survey “Being Black in the EU – Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey” (EU-MIDIS II) by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s (FRA).

 “This report highlights how racial discrimination, racist crime, racial profiling and social exclusion specifically affect people of African descent”. (FRA, 2018)

Key findings of the survey:

1- Racist harassment and violence are common occurrences

2- Police stops are often experienced as racial profiling

3- Racial discrimination is a reality in all areas of life

4- Labour market participation – not a level playing field

5- Skin colour affects access to adequate housing

Glossary: We try to expand our terminology to help improve our discussions and better underline arguments on ever so important topics.