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Figure: Prevalence of perceived racial discrimination in access to housing in 5 years before the survey, by country (%) (2018)
(EU-MIDIS II) by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s (FRA)

Key findings:

“One in five respondents of African descent (21 %) felt racially discriminated against in access to housing in the five years before the survey. The highest rates were observed in Italy and Austria (39 % each), Luxembourg (36 %) and Germany (33 %). The lowest were observed in Denmark and the United Kingdom, where less than 10 % of respondents mentioned such experiences.”

“Eight in 10 respondents (84 %) identify their skin colour or physical appearance as the main reason behind the most recent incident of discrimination they experienced when looking for housing. Other reasons include respondents’ first or last names (16 %) and their citizenship (15 %).”

“More than one in two respondents (55 %) have a household income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold after social transfers in the country where they live. The highest rates are observed in Austria (88 %), Malta (82 %) and Luxembourg (71 %). By contrast, this is the case for 14 % of the general population in Austria, and 17 % of the general population in both Malta and Luxembourg.”

“One in two respondents live in overcrowded housing (45 %), compared to 17 % of the general population in the EU-28.”

housing deprivation includes living in a dwelling without a bath and toilet or in a dwelling that is too dark, has rot in the walls or windows, or has a leaking roof.”

Data from the 2016 survey “Being Black in the EU – Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey” (EU-MIDIS II) by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s (FRA).

 “This report highlights how racial discrimination, racist crime, racial profiling and social exclusion specifically affect people of African descent”. (FRA, 2018)

Key findings of the survey:

1- Racist harassment and violence are common occurrences

2- Police stops are often experienced as racial profiling

3- Racial discrimination is a reality in all areas of life

4- Labour market participation – not a level playing field

5- Skin colour affects access to adequate housing